step three.3. Risk Products
Compared with men with BMI? 25 kg/m 2 , the age-adjusted risk of osteoporosis was over four-fold higher in those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio (OR) 4.4 (1.51, ) in age-adjusted model (Table 3). The association between BMI and osteopenia was similar among overweight/obese and normal weight men, although not statistically significant (Table 3).
Each other Body mass index and you will weight had been correlated with BMD, and you can BMC signs and also the strongest Pearson’s correlation coefficients had been discover ranging from pounds and you will BMC overall cool and you can trochanter regions and you may the new weakest of them have been ranging from Bmi and you can femoral shoulder BMC. The newest correlations anywhere between decades and you can BMD and you will BMC indications was in fact negative (Desk cuatro).
Age-adjusted ratio of BMD and you will BMC type informed me of the Bmi and you will lbs try revealed when you look at the Dining table 5. Lbs had a tendency to inform you greater differences in BMD and you can BMC shipment whatsoever this new learnt skeletal sites compared to Body mass index. This is shown of the steeper slope (?) of particular linear regression outlines https://datingranking.net/es/sitios-de-citas-musulmanes/. Top difference between BMD and you can BMC shipment seemed at trochanter BMC followed closely by lumbar BMC having lbs. Weight is a vital predictor away from BMD and you will BMC adaptation for the older Iranian males.
In this study, both BMI and weight were associated with BMD, and obesity significantly decreased the risk for osteoporosis in men. These results are consistent with most previous studies, particularly in postmenopausal women, which indicated that lower BMI and weight were associated with lower BMD. Prospective studies found that the early postmenopausal women who have low BMI lose more bones compared to those with higher BMI tertiles [4, 8]. In other cross-sectional studies, however, thinness is related to both osteoporosis and increased fracture risk [10, 11]. Iqbal et al. found that low BMI is a good indicator for referral of women less than 60 years old for measurements of BMD. Similar studies also reported a consistent finding that lower BMI was associated with lower BMD [5, 6, 28]. In a study similar to ours, those with lower BMI were at higher risk of low BMD . The Studies of National Osteoporosis Foundation and others suggested that low BMI should be included in the risk assessment tools for evaluation of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture risk [29–31]. We found that men with BMI < 25 had 4.4 (95% CI 1.5, 12.8) times higher age-adjusted risk of osteoporosis than men with BMI ? 25. In contrast, Steinschneider et al. in a cross-sectional study reported that the correlation between BMD at the femoral neck and BMI was highly positive among postmenopausal women. A hospital-based study conducted in elderly men reported that overweight and obese men were more likely to have osteoporosis and osteopenia . The possible explanation for the discrepancies between these results might be related to populations, research designs, sampling methods, and methodological differences.
The brand new elements for which adipose tissue exerts results to your BMD condition are not entirely obvious. The fresh putative mechanism benefits out of adipose tissue to have skeletal integrity probably stays in brand new character of numerous adipokines from inside the bone renovations as a result of influence on both development and you can resorption. Has just, bone could have been sensed an enthusiastic endocrine organ impacting pounds manage and glucose homoeostasis from steps of bone-derived activities including osteocalcin and osteopontin [23, 34–36]. The newest putative crosstalk anywhere between lbs while the skeleton constitutes an effective homoeostatic opinions system where adipokines and you will particles released from the osteoblasts and osteoclasts represent the web link regarding an energetic bone-adipose axis [34–36]. Being obese is additionally for the BMD by conversion process out of androgen in order to the hormone estrogen , and therefore advances bone mass both in people [38, 39] and you will preserves suit plasma levels of insulin and you can regulating products in addition to insulin-such as for instance gains foundation-1, leptin, and you will adiponectin . At the same time, carrying excess fat brings cushioning toward stylish in case there are good slide . But not, the brand new elements where all these occurrences can be found are nevertheless undecided.